When shopping for cannabis products, we often come across the term ‘spectrum’, used primarily to demonstrate the chemical structure of cannabis. It all might sound a bit complicated, but it is only a table, list or other graphical representation of the share of certain cannabinoids in the structure of cannabis. The cannabinoid spectrum is something we must pay attention to since it contains vital information on the product’s quality. As we know, cannabis contains certain substances that affect our endocannabinoid system, called cannabinoids. There are many more than the well-known THC and CBD, each of which eases certain medical issues we are seeking treatment for. Products of quality provide the so called ‘full spectrum’ of cannabis, enabling us to ingest a variety of other cannabinoids beside the pair. Less reliable products most often contain the so called ‘mono spectrum’, usually providing us with only one cannabinoid. Let us look at the full spectrum of a quality product; 20% CBD Full pectrum contains:

























Next to each cannabinoid, its share is provided, the knowing of which being important when we desire to emphasize the efficiency of the treatment. When informed on the most efficient cannabinoid of the spectrum for treating our medical condition, additional cannabinoids may be added to the treatment, multiplying instead of just adding the desired effect. It is important to follow the rules on dosing when engaging in such treatment; many use less than the dose required, not allowing the healing to take place entirely.


When speaking of medical benefits or psychoactive properties of cannabis, we are referring to the wide spectrum of cannabinoids. There are 61 different kinds of them, but we will focus only on the most well known and most important ones:

THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol): THC is the key psychoactive component of cannabis and therefore usually used as a reference to measuring cannabis’ strength in percent. In living plants, it is present in the form of an acid called THCA, which begins transforming into THC after crop, a process simply accelerated by heating, vaporizing or burning the plant.

CBC (Cannabichromene): An anti-inflammatory, anti-virus and analgesic cannabinoid, used for treating various tumors, specifically breast cancer, in combination with THC and CBD. It is a very efficient antidepressant.

CBG (Cannabigerol): Having no psychoactive components, this cannabinoid is usually used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial drug, known even for stopping the growth of cancer cells.

CBD (Cannabidiol): The second most widely used cannabinoid right next to THC. Newer studies are only beginning to uncover all the medical benefits it can provide. CBD has no psychoactive effects on the user and is even being used as an antipsychotic. It has strong anti-inflammatory effects. It modulates the effects of THC and causes feelings of relaxation. It reduces anxiety and insomnia. Even more, it is being increasingly used in treating arthritis, epileptic seizures, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, diabetes, MS, Crohn disease, Alzheimer’s, dementia and many more serious health issues. CBD is even known for encouraging the growth of brain cells. As with THC, it is present in living plants in the form of an acid called CBDA, only being transformed into CBD after certain processes like heating are started.

THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin): A cannabinoid crucial for regulating a person’s body weight. With it’s effect on the endocannabinoid system, it affects the apetite, without suppressing it completely.

CBDV (Cannabidivarin): A cannabinoid most efficient for easing the symptoms of epillepsy. It is naturally present in the ‘full spectrum’ products and can be applied additionally with concentrates.

CBN (Cannabinol): A mildly psychoactive cannabinoid known for increasing the effects of THC, although only emerging with THC’s decomposition. Newer studies classify it as an antidepressant, antiepileptic, also known for decreasing intraocular pressure.



TERPENES: There are other substances beside cannabinoids in cannabis plants that benefit our health. Such are terpenes, which are responsible for the specific smell and taste of cannabis plants. The plants produce these substances in order to keep themselves safe from external threats and to stay cool and fresh when being heated by the sun.

Terpenes work as antidepressants, analgesics, sedatives, antioxidants, anxiety medication and anti-inflammatory substances. They are also muscle relaxants and have a role in regulating the widening and narrowing veins. The plant produces them constantly, curiously enough in the same glands as the THCA acid, and they constantly dissolve because of light and heat. There are more than 120 of them and we can find completely different terpenes in the plants of the same sort, even when growing together. They are one of the key ingredients of CBD oil. We will address only the most well-known terpenes:

ALFA PINEN: The most common terpene is known for its anti-inflammatory effects and its specific, pine-like smell.

LINALOOL: Also found in lavender, this terpene is marked by its specific smell of flowers. It is used for treating stress and anxiety.

MYRCENE: Found in certain herbs, such as thyme, it is the most common terpene found in cannabis plants. It is known to affect the strength of the plant’s sedative effects. Some of its many medical benefits are treating depression and anxiety, apart from being an antioxidant, analgesic and an anti-inflammatory substance.

LIMONEN: Known both in citruses and cannabis, this terpene helps ease anxiety and depression.

OCIMENE: Initially grown for the plant’s self-protection, this terpene works as an antifungal substance for people and is also used in perfumes.

TERPINEOL: Works calmingly and is known for its soothing smell.

BETA KAROFILEN: Known for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic qualities, this terpene affects our endocannabinoid system.

GERANIOL: Marked by its wide specter of uses, this terpene is being used in fields as different as repellant industry and neuropathic medicine. Its smell is distinguished by its likeness to roses.

ALFA HUMULEN: Decreases appetite and has anti-inflammatory qualities. It is the terpene that gives certain sorts of cannabis plants the known smell of hops.


Both derive from the same plant, the cannabis sativa, but differences occur in its cultivation, chemical structure and use. Medicinal cannabis usually carries about 10% of THC and is known commonly as marijuana. Its use causes sedative effects that are of much use in treating certain medical conditions. The plant’s growth is generally width-oriented, growing mostly in warm, moist areas.

Hemp produces only minimal quantities of THC and is instead richly potent with the cannabinoid CBD. Due to the nature of its cultivation, hemp’s growth is mostly height-oriented, its main product being the fibers of the stem. It grows in almost any climate.

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